Accounts payable is the aggregate amount of an entity's short-term obligations to pay suppliers for products and services which the entity purchased on credit. If accounts payable are not paid within the payment terms agreed to with the supplier, the payables are considered to be in default, which may trigger a penalty or interest payment, or the revocation or curtailment of additional credit from the supplier.
When individual accounts payable are recorded, this may be done in a payables subledger, thereby keeping a large number of individual transactions from cluttering up the general ledger. Alternatively, if there are few payables, they may be recorded directly in the general ledger. Accounts payable appears within the current liability section of an entity's balance sheet.
Accounts payable are considered a source of cash, since they represent funds being borrowed from suppliers. When accounts payable are paid, this is a use of cash. Given these cash flow considerations, suppliers have a natural inclination to push for shorter payment terms, while creditors want to lengthen the payment terms.
From a management perspective, it is of some importance to have accurate accounts payable records, so that suppliers are paid on time and liabilities are recorded in full and within the correct time periods. Otherwise, suppliers will be less inclined to grant credit, and the financial results of a business may be incorrect.
The reverse of accounts payable is accounts receivable, which are short-term obligations payable to a company by its customers.
Accounts payable is also known as payables or trade payables.