In accounting, to assign means to pledge trade receivables to a lender as part of a factoring arrangement, where the receivables are collateral on a loan.

The term is also used in regard to the apportionment of factory overhead costs to units of production. This process is mandated by the major accounting frameworks, so that production costs are associated with manufactured goods. The outcome of this assignment is that some factory overhead ends up being stored in inventory if some of the production outcome is not sold by the end of the reporting period. Once these units are sold, the related factory overhead assignment is charged to expense.