White-collar crime

White-collar crime refers to several types of fraud that are committed by business professionals. These crimes are not violent; instead, perpetrators rely upon deceit and concealment to divert funds and other assets for their personal gain, or to avoid the loss of assets. Examples of white-collar crimes are as follows:

  • Embezzlement. Involves the theft of assets that have been entrusted to a person.

  • Forgery. The creation of a fake legal document or the alteration of an existing one.

  • Insider trading. When a person has information not available to the general public and uses it to make advantageous securities trades.

  • Insurance fraud. The use of deception to gain a payment from an insurance provider.

  • Intentional misstatement of financial statements. When the financial statements are altered to present an image of the financial results or position of a business that is incorrect.

  • Money laundering. The process of obscuring the origins of cash, so that it appears to be legitimate.

  • Nigerian scam. Emails are sent that request assistance in transferring a substantial amount of money.

  • Ponzi scheme. A deception in which early investors are paid off from funds invested by later investors, rather than from actual investment returns.

  • Securities fraud. The purchase or sale of securities that is based on the issuance of false information or the withholding of material information.

The "white-collar crime" name comes from the types of individuals who usually engage in it - executives, managers, staff employees (such as accountants), and so forth.

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