White-collar crime refers to several types of fraud that are committed by business professionals. These crimes are not violent; instead, perpetrators rely upon deceit and concealment to divert funds and other assets for their personal gain. Examples of white-collar crimes are as follows:
- Embezzlement. Involves the theft of assets that have been entrusted to a person.
- Forgery. The creation of a fake legal document or the alteration of an existing one.
- Insider trading. When a person has information not available to the general public and uses it to make advantageous securities trades.
- Insurance fraud. The use of deception to gain a payment from an insurance provider.
- Intentional misstatement of financial statements. When the financial statements are altered to present an image of the financial results or position of a business that is incorrect.
- Money laundering. The process of obscuring the origins of cash, so that it appears to be legitimate.
- Ponzi scheme. A deception in which early investors are paid off from funds invested by later investors, rather than from actual investment returns.
- Securities fraud. The purchase or sale of securities that is based on the issuance of false information or the withholding of material information.
The "white-collar crime" name comes from the types of individuals who usually engage in it - executives, managers, staff employees (such as accountants), and so forth.